The research about Thonburi’s Performing Arts in the 21th Century is aimed at studying the art of performing arts. It is to study the model of the cultural context of the Thonburi side in the 21st century and to create a database for searching documents. Multimedia publish information to educational and community agencies in Thonburi. This research use qualitative research method. Data are collected from research papers and related texts, field observation with non-participant and focus group, in-depth interview and group interview from professional, local philosopher, District Director, Chairman of the Cultural Council, Head of Faculty, performers, musicians, Presidents of the Community and villagers. Research found that the traditional art of performing arts is inherited by oral transmission of family kinship.
Traditional art performances are inherited by oral teaching the relatives. By the 21st century, the company had transformed into a business model. At present, there are 4 groups consisting of lions and dragons, Kratong Tang Seua, Klong Yao application and Portuguese dance. The collection of the show is as follows. 1) A group of lions and dragons consist of 19 company members which are : Sith Thevatham company, Sith Luang Po Toon company, Sith Look Chaimongkol company, Long Qian Thailand company, Look Thonburi company, Look Po Pie Bang Song Rit company, Look Po O Pa Sri company, Look Suan Yee Sip company, Sith Luang Po Mahesuan company, Sith Luang Po Vichiangmunee company, Sith Luang Po Keaw company, Sith Chao Po Jiao di Lar company, Sith Look Chaofahchuthamanee company, Kang Puk Thailand company, Sith Jakkapatdam company , Look Chao Po Kao Tok company, Sith Eak Taomahaprom company, Look Pranaresuan company, and Sith Luang Po Noi company.
2) Kratong Tang Seua 4 company which are : Sith wat yai Srisuphan company, Sith Po Tod company, Sith wat bangsakeanok company and Sith Luang Po Meng watbangsakeanai company. 3) Klong Yao application 1 company which is : Sor Pornpraphom company. 4) Portuguese dance 1 company which is Kudechin Community. The 21st century attribute connect to ethnics, culture, tradition, roles and duties as well as knowledge Society. Those Performance have been developed to current culture The culture identity of Thonburi Community passed to the Lion dance, Dragon Mouth Dance and Dragon Kao Mai (The Dragon has 9 performance who carry 9 stick) Kratong Tang Seua and Tiger Challenge perform, Klong Yao playing and do the Pyramid acrobats with 3 Drum. In the last 10 year that the protugase dance been develop from their knowledge and become culture identity of Thonburi Community.
Keywords: Thonburi, Performing Arts, the 21st Century.
Today’s society has to accept the differences and cultural diversity. Ethnic discrimination, language, religion and belief have been overlooked as a multicultural society. There are different traditions for each ethnic group. It is a tradition for people in the society to accept and divide the culture even though the society changes to the age of globalization or the boundless world of the 21st century. Since 2001, societies have been interdependent, with some of them still experiencing conflicts in economic, political, governance and social aspects. The lack of social activities that can connect people to the idea of understanding between each other and society is weak, divided, not unified. Finally, it caused the failure to rule the society for social peace. Society should create a better understanding as to the underlying strength of our society by bringing the arts as a medium for creating an atmosphere of mutual understanding, listening to each other so that the society will be harmonious. We should encourage cultural strength to lessen the disparity on ethnic, racial, religious and belief.
These various ethnic groups live together around Chao Phraya river side until loosing Krungsri Ayutthaya the second time (1767). These groups of people migrated with Phya Tak down Chao Phraya river and settle the community in Thonburi side. In Krung Thonburi period, there were a lot of Mons who are Myanmar war refugee migrated into Thai’s land from many ways King of Thonburi supported and led them settle. (Office of Art and Culture, 2007 : 20)
Ethnic peoples come together peacefully despite their traditional race. They are different, but can be grouped together on behalf of Siamese or Thai people, with a common language and culture. The first foreigner was Portuguese, which was the first European to enter the Siamese kingdom, then followed by other nations who came to trade, set up camps, and served as volunteer soldiers, as well as bringing in new technologies. As for example, they build a fortress city using weapons. Since the reign of King Naresuan, it appears that the British, Dutch and French gradually came into contact with trade and political roles in Thailand. There are also Asian people, both near and far. In the past, the Ayutthaya era has become a new era. The war caused by the battle between Myanmar caused the state to collapse and people were forced to disappear. At that time, people had to migrate to become citizens. The war against the enemy and the expansion of power was sweeping the people of other places including a lot of political refugees. The Ayutthaya era has many ethnic such as Khmer, Lao, Burmese, besides Borom Poomaram. They came to work and have a special government career such as a professional potter, professional blacksmith and professional elephant trainer.
Thonburi area is affected by the expansion of Bangkok. The shift of occupation from agriculture to industrialization emphasizes the need for labor and the immigration of workers. The number of people who live in Thonburi is increasing, according to the number of factories. Thonburi is the province where the establishment is located in the top of the Bangkok area. Densely populated Thonburi is one of the 50 administrative districts of Bangkok. The northern part of Thonburi is the old town, historic sites and arts and culture. (Thonburi Office, 2012: 11).
Through the arts of dance and music, we hope that the society today will appreciate the value of Thai dance and other genres to create a new thinking processes and methods besides from the existing basis, so that the original work will be appreciated. It is said that music and dance is one of the tool to communicate with the younger generations, thus it can be a way to encourages them to appreciate, understand and be a part of it. As long as the art continues to be a part of human life, it is a joy to live in.
Next, dance and music has a role in telling stories and expressing emotions from within, conveying them outwardly but aesthetically. What kind of dance it is? It depends on the successor who will be the collector and developer of the new one in accordance with the present social context to introduce the existing knowledge in the community or local to study the origin and value of the art as a community identity.
From the beginning of mankind on Earth, performing art that are inherited by ethnic groups are all consisted of performing arts and music that inherited in people’s lives, shall be developed from generation to generation. Performing arts and music has become one of important relationship connector and its the center of people in the community. In some areas performing arts and music decrease the role as a wonderful thing that affect belief and mystery or religion, but changed to be an recreational activity and develops with period of time, yet become an entertaining purpose. (Narapong Jarussri, 2005 : 2)
In the 21st century, the research on the art of performing arts in the Thonburi side was considered important. Conservation and spatial cultural studies contribute to the development of society, and develop educated communities that changes the way we look to the 21st century. It also helps us to find information needed and empower the communities. To promote tourism, they need to link the learning activities with the community groups to realize that performing arts can be used as a community’s cultural identity to the value of local knowledge and social value.
1. To study the knowledge and art collection of the Thonburi side of the 21st century.
2. To study the performance model related to the cultural context of Thonburi side in the 21st century.
3. To create a database for searching documents and as a multimedia platform to publish information to educational and community agencies in Thonburi.
This research uses qualitative research methodology, which collects information from publications, research papers, and thesis texts related to Thonburi Performing Arts. It also involves field observation with non-participant, focus group discussion, in-depth interview, group interviews with local philosopher, District Director, Chairman of the Cultural Council, Head of Faculty, performers, musicians, Presidents of the Community and villagers. Here are the following topics:
1. Tools and Equipment
The instrument used to collect data was an interview form based on the field
observation method with non-participant at the areas related to the performing arts, the original Thonburi and the 21st century.
1.1 History of the traditional ThonBuri art.
1.2 The format of the exhibition related to the cultural context.
1.3 The use of performing arts as a medium of social learning in the 21st century.
2. Research Design
In this study, the staff of the researchers have defined the scope into two aspects :
2.1 The area
Thonburi area has 1 district, 7 sub districts, 44 communities
Three highly qualified persons and local philosophers
Two Directors of district and Chairman of Cultural Council
Three Chairman of the community and villagers
Three actresses and actors
3. Data Collection
Data collection is divided into 2 parts:
· The collection of data was based on research papers, research papers, thesis texts
related to 21st century Thonburi art
· Field observation with non-participant, focus group discussion, in-depth
interview, group interviews with local philosopher, District Director, Chairman of the Cultural Council, Head of Faculty, performers, musicians, Presidents of the Community and villagers.
4. Analyzing data
The data were analyzed by using field data to synthesize data types and types of
performances into 4 groups:
Group 1: Lion dances, Group 2: Dragon dances, Group 3: Klong Yao application, Group
4: Portuguese dances, and also some analysis of the following issues:
4.1 Traditional Thonburi Performing Arts
4.2 The Style of Display with Cultural Context
4.3 The 21st Century Learning Society
The researcher presented the results in the form of a research paper. The articles were
published internationally. The exhibition is organized as follows: Organizing a talk on Thonburi’s performing arts in the 21st century, a case study of Thonburi area to exchange knowledge and create an educated society. For the exhibition, they has a poster that can scan barcodes (QR Code) or 2D barcodes with smartphones. The company also published a brochure that can scan the barcode (QR Code) or 2D barcode with 500 smartphones and produce 200 multimedia presentation on DVDs to be distributed to the participant and to be given to the 44 community presidents to promote it to their community. In addition, the research team also introduced a brochure that can scan barcodes (QR Code) or 2D barcodes with smartphones. Performances (DVDs) are available to public and private sectors such as Thonburi District Office, Office of President of the Cultural Council, 26 schools and 2 universities in Thonburi.
The results of the research on the performing arts of the Thonburi side in the 21st century are summarized as follows;
The knowledge and art collection of the Thonburi side of the 21st century has been found. In the past, Thonburi was the successor to the children. By the turn of the 21st century, social change has made the performing arts being divided by the social world. Modular technology is transformed from family and kinship into a business model. The current knowledge is that there are 4 groups of lions and dragons which shove away the long drum and Portuguese dancing application.
In Thon Buri, there is a large group of lions and dragons consist of 19 faculty members as follows: 1. Sith Thevatham company, 2. Sith Luang Po Toon company, 3. Sith Look Chaimongkol company, 4. Long Qian Thailand company, 5. Look Thonburi company, 6. Look Po Pie Bang Song Rit company, 7. Look Po O Pa Sri company, 8. Look Suan Yee Sip company, 9. Sith Luang Po Mahesuan company, 10. Sith Luang Po Vichiangmunee company, 11. Sith Luang Po Keaw company, 12. Sith Chao Po Jiao di Lar company, 13. Sith Look Chaofahchuthamanee company, 14. Kang Puk Thailand company, 15. Sith Jakkapatdam company , 16. Look Chao Po Kao Tok company, 17. Sith Eak Taomahaprom company, 18. Look Pranaresuan company, and 19. Sith Luang Po Noi company. which involves 19 students, who introduced the knowledge of the old lion floor dance to communicate with youth in the community and nearby areas. There are only the fascist Thailand that passed to Wat Nuan Nongdhit School by developing the knowledge in the form of 9 dragon chants.
Kratong Tang Seua : Researcher found that there are 3 types of knowledge inheritance, including from the teacher, the character played and the words of mouth. While the development is increasing, the number of tigers is up to 30, with both large and small tigers in total. There are 4 company which are Sith wat yai Srisuphan company, Sith Po Tod company, Sith wat bangsakeanok company and Sith Luang Po Meng watbangsakeanai company who practicing by the youth in their community and pass on Knowledge to Wat Dao Kanong School, Bangsakea School and Thonburi Rajabhat University
Klong Yao application and costumes are available from the primary knowledge. This day, modern games have been adapted to bring popular music to play in the parade and there is a so- called drumming game. Sor Pornpraphom company, who has three drums in the collection conveyed his knowledge to the public at wat bangsakeanok and the Wat Khun Chan community.
Portuguese dance is one of the factions of Kudechin community. The display format is new. The original Portuguese dance was developed for the demonstration, used to train children in the community and students of Santa Cruz school. It is shown on the national day of Portugal on June 10 consistently at the Embassy of Portugal and displayed at significant community occasions.
In terms of the style that is relevant to the cultural context of the Thonburi side of the 21st century, there are three aspects: ethnicity and culture, social role and function, and social learning. According to the research, all four ethnic and cultural groups are linked in this table.
Table 1: Ethnicity and style of the 21st century
Performance Style (Theme)
Lion dance, dragon dance, acrobatics
Dance of the story. The plot comes from local literature. Nohara, acrobatics
Klong Yao, dance, acrobatics
As the social and cultural life of the community changes with age, old and traditional cultures are adapted to modern society, globalization and society of the 21st century technology:
Group 1 lions and dragons are divided into 3 categories.
1.1 There are three main types of lions:
· The Lion Dance
· Lion dance (acrobatics)
· Lions dance on different levels.
1.2 There are 4 types Dragon
· Dragon dance (dragon ball)
· The dragon ground dances
· 9 Dragon Masters / 9 Wood Dragons
· Dragon dance blends with the Wushu sports.
1.3 Drum show
Group 2: Kratong Tang Seua shows are divided into two types.
2.1 The dance by the story of a jar.
2.2 Acrobatic play such as somersault, roll, jumping between legs
Group 3 Klong Yao applications has 3 types.
3.1 Playing a drum is a long drum play.
3.2 Acrobatic with three-drum connection.
3.3 Dance in the procession
Group 4: Portuguese dance is divided into 2 types:
4.1 Group dance is traditional folk dance.
4.2 Male-female dance is a social dance.
Researcher Database for Document Search and Multimedia Disseminate Information
Art Exhibition has a role in the education and community of Thonburi. The Art Exhibition on Thonburi’s side in the 21st century case study in Thonburi area was held to exchange knowledge and create an educated community for the society as follows: Create posters that can scan barcode (QR Code) or 2D bar code with smartphone and publish the information in pamphlet form.You can scan your barcodes (QR codes) or 2D barcodes with 500 smartphones and make 200 multimedia presentation (DVDs) to be distributed to the colleagues and to be given to the 44 community presidents to promote it to their community. In addition, the research team also introduced a brochure that can scan barcodes (QR Code) or 2D barcodes with smartphones. Performances (DVDs) are available to public and private sectors such as Thonburi District Office, Office of President of the Cultural Council, 26 schools and 2 educational institutes in Thonburi to promote self-learning through the use of technology and participation of the communities in the use of performing arts as a medium of social learning.
Discussion of the Results.
The result discuss about the knowledge and art collection of the Thonburi side of the 21st century, the database search in documents, published multimedia of information to educational and community agencies in Thonburi. The results of the research are: The Art of Performing Arts on the Thonburi side in the 21st century is inherited from the time when Thonburi was the capital of Thailand. Social change makes the art diverse by the new world community that shows the style and how it changes. Family and kinship development has grown in the form of professional exhibitions to generate subsistence income. In the last 20 years, this has evolved in a new way. Various cultural contexts have changed, including performances in various festivals, presentations in the travel business exhibited by the organizers. Thon Buri’s 21st century art can be divided into four categories: 1. lions and dragons. 2. Kratong Tang Seua 3. Klong Yao application and 4. Portuguese dance according to the above mentioned studies. The results of this research are as follows.
In the study of lion dance performances in Chinese culture and international sport, it is said that the lion dance is a cultural heritage of China that reflects the combination of performing arts, martial arts, acrobatics, and infection (Thanyathiwat Terdapisit, 2015: Abstracts) which consistent with the results of the research. Kriang Krai Hong Heng Seng from Mahidol University which had research Kra Aung Tand Khway and Kratong Tang Seua before. History and development of Kratong Tang Seua had been adapted from Kra Aung Tand Khway preform, which transforms new tales and characters but has a similar storyline. Tiger performances can still be seen in the present day ceremony (Kriangkrai Hong Heng Seng, 2017: Abstract). In line with Montri’s findings, Narong Ratchatchara Vormit Mitriya said that turning the keyboard into a drum is a combination of playing folk music with international music, making it popular today and maintaining a Klong Yao performance at MahaSarakham Province. (Montri Namin, Thanaporn Pengsri, Narongrush voramitmitri, 2017: Abstract).
The study of Thonburi’s Performing Arts in the 21th Century a case study of Thonburi District including the cultural context of the community. To do this research, field data must be collected. There may be problems during the research, such as it may take a long time for data to be collected because the data provider may not be easy to provide the information. Next, researchers may need to collect data several times to get the best result. Therefore, collecting field data, etc should be planned very well to avoid time wasted.
This Thonburi’s Performing Arts in the 21th Century is a case study in Thonburi. There are 15 districts in Thonburi, so there are other types of performing arts. In 14 other areas, there is a very interesting performance art to explore but it is less inherited. It is likely that it is less popular and less capable society in delivering the art. To showcase new models that meet the needs of community tourism, researchers recommend that those who are interested in learning the performing arts or in academic studies to take part in conservation, culture and spatial studies, a cultural identity that can bring Thonburi artistic identity to national heritage for a long time, ever.
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