A three-dimensional virtual world (henceforth, 3DVW) is a novel phenomenon with enormous potential as a virtual community for broadening meaningful life experiences. Previous 3DVW research, however, has not addressed the determinants that influence L2 students’ expectations. The primary goal of this study was to employ a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify significant factors impacting 3DVW in the next-normal L2 classrooms. Drawing on the empirical research, a countrywide sample of 1174 student teachers completed a 50-item questionnaire to investigate the essential features of 3DVW in relation to language learning and instruction. Half of the respondents were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA), while the other half were retained for CFA. The findings of EFA indicated that a five-factor model of the 3DVW best explains the data: (1) target language practice, (2) collaboration, (3) authentic environment, (4) engagement, and (5) self-control. CFA was a good fit, bolstering the five-factor solution. Overall, the reliability and validity offered by these factors were satisfactory. The inherent limitations and future research directions are highlighted.
Wiboolyasarin, W., Jinowat, N., Wiboolyasarin, K., & Kamonsawad, R. (2023). Digital school or online game Factors determining 3D virtual worlds in language classrooms for pre-service teachers. Interactive Learning Environments (Taylor & Francis), 30(10). Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820. 2023.2172588
(ฐานข้อมูลสากล Scopus Q1)